Monday, December 29, 2008

Beginning and Ending Verses of each chapter in the Gita

Here are the 36 (+1 [see notes below]) verses that are the first and last verses of all the chapters of the Gita, along with Swami Gambhirananda's translation, as well as my notes.


  1. Chapter 1
    • dhR^itaraashhTra uvaacha .
      dharmakshetre kurukshetre samavetaa yuyutsavaH .
      maamakaaH paaNDavaashchaiva kimakurvata sa.njaya .. 1.1..


      Dhrtarastra said: O Sanjaya, what did my sons (and others) and Pandu's sons (and others) actually do when, eager for battle, they assembled on the sacred field, the Kuruksetra (Field of the Kurus)?

    • sa.njaya uvaacha .
      evamuktvaarjunaH saN^khye rathopastha upaavishat.h .
      visR^ijya sashara.n chaapa.n shokasa.nvignamaanasaH .. 1.47..

      Sanjaya narrated: Having said so, Arjuna, with a mind afflicted with sorrow, sat down on the chariot in the midst of the battle, casting aside the bow along with the arrows.


  2. Chapter 2
    • sa.njaya uvaacha .
      ta.n tathaa kR^ipayaavishhTamashrupuurNaakulekshaNam.h .
      vishhiidantamida.n vaakyamuvaacha madhusuudanaH .. 2.1..


      Sanjaya said: To him who had been thus filled with pity, whose eyes were filled with tears and showed distress, and who was sorrowing, Madhusudana uttered these words:

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      eshhaa braahmii sthitiH paartha nainaaM praapya vimuhyati .
      sthitvaasyaamantakaale.api brahmanirvaaNamR^ichchhati .. 2.72..


      The Blessed Lord said: O Partha, this is the state of being established in Brahman. One does not become deluded after attaining this. One attains identification with Brahman by being established in this state even in the closing years of one's life.


  3. Chapter 3
    • arjuna uvaacha .
      jyaayasii chetkarmaNaste mataa buddhirjanaardana .
      tatki.n karmaNi ghore maa.n niyojayasi keshava .. 3.1..


      Arjuna said: O Janardana (krsna), if it be Your opinion that wisdom is superior to action, why they do you urge me to horrible aciton, O Kesava ?

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      evaM buddheH paraM buddhvaa sa.nstabhyaatmaanamaatmanaa .
      jahi shatruM mahaabaaho kaamaruupaM duraasadam.h .. 3.43..


      3.43 Understanding the Self thus as superior to the intellect, and completely establishing (the Self) is spiritual absorption with the (help of) the mind, O mighty-armed one, vanquish the enemy in the form of desire, which is difficult to subdue.



  4. Chapter 4
    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      imaM vivasvate yogaM proktavaanahamavyayam.h .
      vivasvaanmanave praaha manurikshvaakave.abraviit.h .. 4.1..

      The Blessed Lord said: I imparted this imperishable Yoga to Vivasvan, Vivasvan taught this to Manu, and Manu transmitted this to Iksavaku.

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      tasmaadaGYaanasaMbhuutaM hR^itstha.n GYaanaasinaatmanaH .
      chhittvainaM sa.nshayaM yogamaatishhThottishhTha bhaarata .. 4.42..


      The Blessed Lord said: Therefore, O scion of the Bharata dyasty, take recourse to yoga and rise up, cutting asunder with the sword of Knowledge this doubt of your own in the heart, arising from ignorance.


  5. Chapter 5
    • arjuna uvaacha .
      sa.nnyaasaM karmaNaa.n kR^ishhNa punaryoga.n cha sha.nsasi .
      yachchhreya etayorekaM tanme bruuhi sunishchitam.h .. 5.1..


      Arjuna said: O Krsna, You praise renunciation of actions, and again, (Karma-) yoga. Tell me for certain that one which is better between these two.

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      bhoktaaraM yaGYatapasaa.n sarvalokamaheshvaram.h .
      suhR^idaM sarvabhuutaanaa.n GYaatvaa maa.n shaantimR^ichchhati ..
      5.29..

      The Blessed Lord said:One attains Peace by knowing Me who, as the great Lord of all the worlds, am the enjoyer of sacrifices and austerities, (and) who am the friend of all creatures.


  6. Chapter 6
    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      anaashritaH karmaphalaM kaarya.n karma karoti yaH .
      sa sa.nnyaasii cha yogii cha na niragnirna chaakriyaH .. 6.1..


      The Blessed Lord said: He who performs an action which is his duty, without depending on the result of action, he is a monk and a yogi; (but) not (so in) he who does not keep a fire and is actionless.

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      yoginaamapi sarveshhaaM madgatenaantaraatmanaa .
      shraddhaavaanbhajate yo maa.n sa me yuktatamo mataH .. 6.47..


      Even among all the yogis, he who adores Me with his mind fixed on Me and with faith,he is considered by Me to be the best of the yogis.



  7. Chapter 7
    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      mayyaasaktamanaaH paartha yogaM yuJNjanmadaashrayaH .
      asa.nshayaM samagraM maa.n yathaa GYaasyasi tachchhR^iNu .. 7.1..


      The Blessed Lord said: O Partha, hear how you, having the mind fixed on Me, practising the Yoga of Meditation and taking refuge in Me, will know Me with certainly and in fulness.

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      saadhibhuutaadhidaivaM maa.n saadhiyaGYa.n cha ye viduH .
      prayaaNakaale.api cha maa.n te viduryuktachetasaH .. 7.30..


      The Blessed Lord said: Those who know me as existing in the physical and the divine planes, and also in the context of the sacrifice, they of concentrated minds know Me even at the time of death.



  8. Chapter 8
    • arjuna uvaacha .
      ki.n tad.h brahma kimadhyaatma.n kiM karma purushhottama .
      adhibhuuta.n cha kiM proktamadhidaivaM kimuchyate .. 8.1..

      O supreme person, what is that Brahman? What is that which exists in the individual plane? What is action? And what is that which is said to exist in the physical plane? What is that which is said to be existing in the divine plane?

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      vedeshhu yaGYeshhu tapaHsu chaiva
      daaneshhu yatpuNyaphalaM pradishhTam.h .
      atyeti tatsarvamidaM viditvaa
      yogii paraM sthaanamupaiti chaadyam.h .. 8.28 ..


      The Blessed Lord said: Having known this, the yogi transcends all those results of rigtheous deeds that are declared with regard to the Vedas, sacrifices, austerities and also charities, and he reaches the primordial supreme State.


  9. Chapter 9
    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      idaM tu te guhyatamaM pravakshyaamyanasuuyave .
      GYaanaM viGYaanasahitaM yajGYaatvaa mokshyase.ashubhaat.h .. 9.1..


      The Blessed Lord said: However, to you who are not given to cavilling I shall speak of this highest secret itself, which is Knowledge [Jnana may mean Brahman that is Consciousness, or Its knowledge gathered from the Vedas (paroksa-jnana). Vijnana is direct experience (aparoksa-jnana).] combined with experience, by realizing which you shall be free from evil.

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      manmanaa bhava madbhakto madyaajii maa.n namaskuru .
      maamevaishhyasi yuktvaivamaatmaanaM matparaayaNaH .. 9.34..


      Having your mind fixed on Me, be devoted to Me, sacrifice to Me, and bow down to Me. By concentrating your mind and accepting Me as the supreme Goal, you shall surely attain Me who am thus the Self.





  10. Chapter 10
    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      bhuuya eva mahaabaaho shR^iNu me paramaM vachaH .
      yatte.ahaM priiyamaaNaaya vakshyaami hitakaamyayaa .. 10.1..


      The Blessed Lord said: O mighty-armed one, listen over again ot My supreme utterance, which I, wishing your welfare, shall speak to you who take delight (in it).

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      athavaa bahunaitena kiM GYaatena tavaarjuna .
      vishhTabhyaahamidaM kR^itsnamekaa.nshena sthito jagat.h .. 10.42..


      The Blessed Lord said: What is the need of your knowing this extensively, O Arjuna? I remain sustaning this whole creation in a special way with a part (of Myself).




  11. Chapter 11
    • arjuna uvaacha .
      madanugrahaaya paramaM guhyamadhyaatmasa.nGYitam.h .
      yattvayokta.n vachastena moho.ayaM vigato mama .. 11.1..


      Arjuna said: This delusion of mine has departed as a result of that speech which is most secret and known as pertaining to the Self, and which was uttered by You for my benefit.

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      matkarmakR^inmatparamo madbhaktaH saN^gavarjitaH .
      nirvairaH sarvabhuuteshhu yaH sa maameti paaNDava .. 11.55..


      The Blessed Lord said: O son of Pandu, he who works for Me, accepts Me as the supreme Goal, is devoted to Me, is devoid of attachment and free from enmity towards all beings-he attains Me.


  12. Chapter 12
    • arjuna uvaacha .
      evaM satatayuktaa ye bhaktaastvaaM paryupaasate .
      ye chaapyaksharamavyaktaM teshhaa.n ke yogavittamaaH .. 12.1..


      Arjuna said: Those devotees who, being thus ever dedicated, meditate on You, and those again (who meditate) on the Immutable, the Unmanifested-of them, who are the best experiencers of yoga [(Here) yoga means samadhi, spiritual absorption.] ?

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      ye tu dharmyaamR^itamidaM yathoktaM paryupaasate .
      shraddadhaanaa matparamaa bhaktaaste.atiiva me priyaaH .. 12.20..


      The Blessed Lord said: But those devotees who accept Me as the supreme Goal, and with faith seek for this ambrosia which is indistinguishable from the virtues as stated above, they are very dear to Me.



  13. Chapter 13
    • arjuna uvaacha .
      prakR^itiM purushha.n chaiva kshetra.n kshetraGYameva cha .
      etadveditumichchhaami GYaanaM GYeya.n cha keshava .. 13.1..


      shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      idaM shariiraM kaunteya kshetramityabhidhiiyate .
      etadyo vetti taM praahuH kshetraGYa iti tadvidaH .. 13.2[13.1]..

      The Blessed Lord said: O son of Kunti, this body is referred to as the 'field'. Those who are versed in this call him who is conscious of it as the 'knower of the field'.

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      kshetrakshetraGYayorevamantaraM GYaanachakshushhaa .
      bhuutaprakR^itimoksha.n cha ye viduryaanti te param.h .. 13.35[13.34]..


      Those who know thus through the eye of wisdom the distinction between the field and the Knower of the field, and the annihilation of the Matrix of beings,-they reach the Supreme.



  14. Chapter 14
    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      paraM bhuuyaH pravakshyaami GYaanaanaa.n GYaanamuttamam.h .
      yajGYaatvaa munayaH sarve paraaM siddhimito gataaH .. 14.1..


      The Blessed Lord said: I shall speak again of the supreme Knowledge, the best of all knowledges, by realizing which all the contemplatives reached the highest Perfection from here.

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .

      brahmaNo hi pratishhThaahamamR^itasyaavyayasya cha .
      shaashvatasya cha dharmasya sukhasyaikaantikasya cha .. 14.27..


      The Blessed Lord said: For I am the Abode of Brahman-the indestructible and immutable, the eternal, the Dharma and absolute Bliss.


  15. Chapter 15
    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      uurdhvamuulamadhaHshaakhamashvatthaM praahuravyayam.h .
      chhandaa.nsi yasya parNaani yasta.n veda sa vedavit.h .. 15.1..


      The Blessed Lord said: They say that the peepul Tree, which has its roots upward and the branches downward, and of which the Vedas are the leaves, is imperishable. He who realizes it is knower of the Vedas.

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      iti guhyatamaM shaastramidamuktaM mayaa.anagha .
      etatbuddhvaa buddhimaansyaatkR^itakR^ityashcha bhaarata .. 15.20..


      The Blessed Lord said: O sinless one, this most secret scripture has thus been uttered by Me. Understanding this, one becomes wise and has his duties fulfilled, O scion of the Bharata dynasty.


  16. Chapter 16
    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      abhayaM sattvasa.nshuddhirGYaanayogavyavasthitiH .
      daanaM damashcha yaGYashcha svaadhyaayastapa aarjavam.h .. 16.1..

      The Blessed Lord said: Fearlessness, purity of mind, persistence in knowledge and yoga, charity and control of the external organs, sacrifice, (scriptural) study, austerity and recititude;

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      tasmaachchhaastraM pramaaNaM te kaaryaakaaryavyavasthitau .
      GYaatvaa shaastravidhaanokta.n karma kartumihaarhasi .. 16.24..


      The Blessed Lord said: Therefore, the scripture is your authority as regards the determination of what is to be done and what is not to be done. After understanding (your) duty as presented by scriptural injunction, you ought to perform (your duty) here.



  17. Chapter 17
    • arjuna uvaacha .
      ye shaastravidhimutsR^ijya yajante shraddhayaanvitaaH .
      teshhaa.n nishhThaa tu kaa kR^ishhNa sattvamaaho rajastamaH .. 17.1..


      But, O Krsna, what is the state [i.e., where do the rites undertaken by them end? of those who, endued with faith, adore by ignoring the injunctions of the scriptures? Is it sattva, rajas or tamas?

    • shriibhagavaanuvaacha .
      ashraddhayaa hutaM datta.n tapastapta.n kR^ita.n cha yat.h .
      asadityuchyate paartha na cha tatprepya no iha .. 17.28..

      The Blessed Lord said: O son of Prtha, whatever is offered in sacrifice and given in charity, as also whatever austerity is undertakne or whatever is done without, faith, is said to be of on avail. And it is of no consequence after death, nor here.


  18. Chapter 18
    • arjuna uvaacha .
      sa.nnyaasasya mahaabaaho tattvamichchhaami veditum.h .
      tyaagasya cha hR^ishhiikesha pR^ithakkeshinishhuudana .. 18.1..

      Arjuna said: O mighty-armed Hrsikesa, O slayer of (the demon) Kesi, I want to know serverally the truth about sannyasa as also about tyaga.

    • sa.njaya uvaacha .
      yatra yogeshvaraH kR^ishhNo yatra paartho dhanurdharaH .
      tatra shriirvijayo bhuutirdhruvaa niitirmatirmama .. 18.78..


      Sanjaya narrated: Where there is Krsna, the Lord of yogas, and where there is Partha, the wielder of the bow, there are fortune, victory, prosperity and unfailing prudence. Such is my conviction.



Here is some notes:

  • The +1 at the beginning of this post refers to the additional verse at the beginning of chapter 13. Some versions of Gita do not contain the verse that is Arjuna's question asking Lord Krishna about six items.


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